CPU2017 Flag Description
Hewlett Packard Enterprise ProLiant DL325 Gen10 Plus (2.35 GHz, AMD EPYC 7452)

Test sponsored by HPE

Compilers: AMD Optimizing C/C++ Compiler Suite


Base Compiler Invocation

C benchmarks

C++ benchmarks

Fortran benchmarks


Peak Compiler Invocation

C benchmarks

C++ benchmarks

Fortran benchmarks


Base Portability Flags

500.perlbench_r

502.gcc_r

505.mcf_r

520.omnetpp_r

523.xalancbmk_r

525.x264_r

531.deepsjeng_r

541.leela_r

548.exchange2_r

557.xz_r


Peak Portability Flags

500.perlbench_r

502.gcc_r

505.mcf_r

520.omnetpp_r

523.xalancbmk_r

525.x264_r

531.deepsjeng_r

541.leela_r

548.exchange2_r

557.xz_r


Base Optimization Flags

C benchmarks

C++ benchmarks

Fortran benchmarks


Peak Optimization Flags

C benchmarks

500.perlbench_r

502.gcc_r

505.mcf_r

525.x264_r

557.xz_r

C++ benchmarks

520.omnetpp_r

523.xalancbmk_r

531.deepsjeng_r

541.leela_r

Fortran benchmarks

548.exchange2_r


Peak Other Flags

C benchmarks

502.gcc_r

C++ benchmarks

523.xalancbmk_r


Implicitly Included Flags

This section contains descriptions of flags that were included implicitly by other flags, but which do not have a permanent home at SPEC.


Commands and Options Used to Submit Benchmark Runs

Using numactl to bind processes and memory to cores

For multi-copy runs or single copy runs on systems with multiple sockets, it is advantageous to bind a process to a particular core. Otherwise, the OS may arbitrarily move your process from one core to another. This can affect performance. To help, SPEC allows the use of a "submit" command where users can specify a utility to use to bind processes. We have found the utility 'numactl' to be the best choice.

numactl runs processes with a specific NUMA scheduling or memory placement policy. The policy is set for a command and inherited by all of its children. The numactl flag "--physcpubind" specifies which core(s) to bind the process. "-l" instructs numactl to keep a process's memory on the local node while "-m" specifies which node(s) to place a process's memory. For full details on using numactl, please refer to your Linux documentation, 'man numactl'

Note that some older versions of numactl incorrectly interpret application arguments as its own. For example, with the command "numactl --physcpubind=0 -l a.out -m a", numactl will interpret a.out's "-m" option as its own "-m" option. To work around this problem, we put the command to be run in a shell script and then run the shell script using numactl. For example: "echo 'a.out -m a' > run.sh ; numactl --physcpubind=0 bash run.sh"


Shell, Environment, and Other Software Settings

Transparent Huge Pages (THP)

THP is an abstraction layer that automates most aspects of creating, managing, and using huge pages. THP is designed to hide much of the complexity in using huge pages from system administrators and developers, as normal huge pages must be assigned at boot time, can be difficult to manage manually, and often require significant changes to code in order to be used effectively. Most recent Linux OS releases have THP enabled by default.

Linux Huge Page settings

If you need finer control you can manually set huge pages using the following steps:

Note that further information about huge pages may be found in the Linux kernel documentation file hugetlbpage.txt.

ulimit -s <n>

Sets the stack size to n kbytes, or unlimited to allow the stack size to grow without limit.

ulimit -l <n>

Sets the maximum size of memory that may be locked into physical memory.

powersave -f (on SuSE)

Makes the powersave daemon set the CPUs to the highest supported frequency.

/etc/init.d/cpuspeed stop (on Red Hat)

Disables the cpu frequency scaling program in order to set the CPUs to the highest supported frequency.

LD_LIBRARY_PATH

An environment variable that indicates the location in the filesystem of bundled libraries to use when running the benchmark binaries.

kernel/randomize_va_space

This option can be used to select the type of process address space randomization that is used in the system, for architectures that support this feature.

MALLOC_CONF

An environment variable set to tune the jemalloc allocation strategy during the execution of the binaries. This environment variable setting is not needed when building the binaries on the system under test.


Operating System Tuning Parameters

OS Tuning

ulimit:

Used to set user limits of system-wide resources. Provides control over resources available to the shell and processes started by it. Some common ulimit commands may include:

Performance Governors (Linux):

In-kernel CPU frequency governors are pre-configured power schemes for the CPU. The CPUfreq governors use P-states to change frequencies and lower power consumption. The dynamic governors can switch between CPU frequencies, based on CPU utilization to allow for power savings while not sacrificing performance.

To set the governor, use the following commmand: "cpupower frequency-set -r -g {desired_governor}"

Disabling Linux services:

Certain Linux services may be disabled to minimize tasks that may consume CPU cycles.

irqbalance:

Disabled through "service irqbalance stop". Depending on the workload involved, the irqbalance service reassigns various IRQ's to system CPUs. Though this service might help in some situations, disabling it can also help environments which need to minimize or eliminate latency to more quickly respond to events.

Tuning Kernel parameters:

The following Linux Kernel parameters were tuned to better optimize performance of some areas of the system:

tuned-adm:

The tuned-adm tool is a commandline interface for switching between different tuning profiles available to the tuned tuning daeomn available in supported Linux distros. The default configuration file is located in /etc/tuned.conf and the supported profiles can be found in /etc/tune-profiles.

Some profiles that may be available by default include: default, desktop-powersave, server-powersave, laptop-ac-powersave, laptop-battery-powersave, spindown-disk, throughput-performance, latency-performance, enterprise-storage

To set a profile, one can issue the command "tuned-adm profile (profile_name)". Here are details about relevant profiles.

Transparent Huge Pages (THP):

THP is an abstraction layer that automates most aspects of creating, managing, and using huge pages. THP is designed to hide much of the complexity in using huge pages from system administrators and developers, as normal huge pages must be assigned at boot time, can be difficult to manage manually, and often require significant changes to code in order to be used effectively. Transparent Hugepages increase the memory page size from 4 kilobytes to 2 megabytes. Transparent Hugepages provide significant performance advantages on systems with highly contended resources and large memory workloads. If memory utilization is too high or memory is badly fragmented which prevents hugepages being allocated, the kernel will assign smaller 4k pages instead. Most recent Linux OS releases have THP enabled by default.

Linux Huge Page settings:

If you need finer control and manually set the Huge Pages you can follow the below steps:

Note that further information about huge pages may be found in your Linux documentation file: /usr/src/linux/Documentation/vm/hugetlbpage.txt

Environment Variables:

GOMP_CPU_AFFINITY:

Used to bind threads to specific CPUs. The variable should contain a space-separated or comma-separated list of CPUs. This list may contain different kinds of entries: either single CPU numbers in any order, a range of CPUs (M-N) or a range with some stride (M-N:S). CPU numbers are zero based. For example, GOMP_CPU_AFFINITY="0 3 1-2 4-15:2" will bind the initial thread to CPU 0, the second to CPU 3, the third to CPU 1, the fourth to CPU 2, the fifth to CPU 4, the sixth through tenth to CPUs 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 respectively and then start assigning back from the beginning of the list. GOMP_CPU_AFFINITY=0 binds all threads to CPU 0. There is no libgomp library routine to determine whether a CPU affinity specification is in effect. As a workaround, language-specific library functions, e.g., getenv in C or GET_ENVIRONMENT_VARIABLE in Fortran, may be used to query the setting of the GOMP_CPU_AFFINITY environment variable. A defined CPU affinity on startup cannot be changed or disabled during the runtime of the application. If both GOMP_CPU_AFFINITY and OMP_PROC_BIND are set, OMP_PROC_BIND has a higher precedence. If neither has been set and OMP_PROC_BIND is unset, or when OMP_PROC_BIND is set to FALSE, the host system will handle the assignment of threads to CPUs.

OMP_DYNAMIC:

Dynamic adjustment of threads. Enable or disable the dynamic adjustment of the number of threads within a team. The value of this environment variable shall be TRUE or FALSE. If undefined, dynamic adjustment is disabled by default.

OMP_SCHEDULE:

How threads are scheduled. Allows to specify schedule type and chunk size. The value of the variable shall have the form: type[,chunk] where type is one of static, dynamic or guided. The optional chunk size shall be a positive integer. If undefined, dynamic scheduling and a chunk size of 1 is used.

OMP_THREAD_LIMIT:

Set the maximum number of threads. Specifies the number of threads to use for the whole program. The value of this variable shall be a positive integer. If undefined, the number of threads is not limited.

MALLOC_CONF:

This environment variable affects the execution of the allocation functions. If the environment variable MALLOC_CONF is set, the characters it contains will be interpreted as options.


Firmware / BIOS / Microcode Settings

Firmware Settings

One or more of the following settings may have been set. If so, the "Platform Notes" section of the report will say so; and you can read below to find out more about what these settings mean.

AMD SMT Option (Default = Enabled):

This feature allows enabling or disabling of logical processor cores on processors supporting AMD SMT. When enabled, each physical processor core operates as two logical processor cores. When disabled, each physical core operates as only one logical processor core. Enabling this option can improve overall performance for applications that benefit from a higher processor core count.

Thermal Configuration (Default = Optimal Cooling):

This feature allows the user to select the fan cooling solution for the system. Values for this BIOS option can be:

Determinism Control (Default = Auto):

This option allows the user to choose between an Auto and Manual mode for Determinism Control. Values for this BIOS option can be:

Performance Determinism (Default = Performance Deterministic):

This option allows the user to configure the AMD processor Determinism setting for AGESA ("AMD Generic Encapsulated Software Architecture", a bootstrap protocol by which system devices on AMD64-architecture mainboards are initialized) control or BIOS control. Values for this BIOS option can be:

Package Power Limit Control Mode (Default = Auto):

This is a per Processor Power Limit value applicable for all populated processors in the system. This can be set to limit the processor power to a certain value. Values for this BIOS option can be:

Memory Patrol Scrubbing (Default = Enabled):

This option allows for correction of soft memory errors. Over the length of system runtime, the risk of producing multi-bit and uncorrected errors is reduced with this option. Values for this BIOS setting can be:

Processor Power and Utilization Monitoring (Default = Enabled):

This BIOS option allows the enabling/disabling of iLo Processor State Mode Switching and Insight Power Management Processor Utilization Monitoring.

When set to disabled, the system will also set the Power Regulator mode to Static High Performance mode and the HP Power Profile mode to Custom. This option may be useful in some environments that require absolute minimum latency.

Workload Profile (Default = General Power Efficient Compute):

This option allows a user to choose a workload profile that best fits the user`s needs. The workload profiles control many power and performance settings that are relevant to general workload areas. Values for this BIOS option can be:

Minimum Processor Idle Power Core C-State (Default = C6 State):

This option can only be configured if the Workload Profile is set to Custom, or this option is not a dependent value for the Workload Profile. This feature selects the processor's lowest idle power state (C-state) that the operating system uses. The higher the C-state, the lower the power usage of that idle state (C6 is the lowest power idle state supported by the processor). Values for this setting can be:

C-State Efficiency mode (Default = Enabled):

This option allows to adjust the frequency along with change in C-State. Enabling will monitor the workload and modulate the frequency of the core to maintian a high C0 residency. It also has latency and power benefits when the CPU is not 100% utilized.

XGMI Force Link Width (Default = Auto):

This option forces the value of XGMI link width to a value set by the user. Performance improvement should be observed while setting the correct value.

Memory Patrol Scrubbing (Default = Enabled):

This option allows for correction of soft memory errors. Over the length of system runtime, the risk of producing multi-bit and uncorrected errors is reduced with this option. Values for this BIOS setting can be:

NUMA memory domains per socket (Default = Auto):

This option allows the user to divide the memory domains that each socket has into a certain number of NUMA memory domains for better memory bandwidth. Values for this BIOS setting can be:

Last-Level Cache (LLC) as NUMA Node (Default = Disabled):

WHen enabled, this option allows the user to divide processor's cores into additional NUMA Nodes based on the L3 cache. Enabling this feature can increase performance for workloads that are NUMA aware and optimized. Values for this BIOS setting can be:

Last updated July 23, 2019.


Flag description origin markings:

[user] Indicates that the flag description came from the user flags file.
[suite] Indicates that the flag description came from the suite-wide flags file.
[benchmark] Indicates that the flag description came from a per-benchmark flags file.

The flags files that were used to format this result can be browsed at
http://www.spec.org/cpu2017/flags/HPE-Platform-Flags-AMD-V1.2-EPYC-revH.html,
http://www.spec.org/cpu2017/flags/aocc200-flags-C1-HPE.html.

You can also download the XML flags sources by saving the following links:
http://www.spec.org/cpu2017/flags/HPE-Platform-Flags-AMD-V1.2-EPYC-revH.xml,
http://www.spec.org/cpu2017/flags/aocc200-flags-C1-HPE.xml.


For questions about the meanings of these flags, please contact the tester.
For other inquiries, please contact info@spec.org
Copyright 2017-2020 Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation
Tested with SPEC CPU2017 v1.1.0.
Report generated on 2020-04-28 15:27:30 by SPEC CPU2017 flags formatter v5178.