CPU2017 Flag Description
Lenovo Global Technology ThinkSystem SR665 V3 (2.25 GHz, AMD EPYC 9754)

Compilers: AMD Optimizing C/C++ Compiler Suite


Base Compiler Invocation

C benchmarks

C++ benchmarks

Fortran benchmarks

Benchmarks using both Fortran and C

Benchmarks using both C and C++

Benchmarks using Fortran, C, and C++


Peak Compiler Invocation

C benchmarks

C++ benchmarks

Fortran benchmarks

Benchmarks using both Fortran and C

Benchmarks using both C and C++

Benchmarks using Fortran, C, and C++


Base Portability Flags

503.bwaves_r

507.cactuBSSN_r

508.namd_r

510.parest_r

511.povray_r

519.lbm_r

521.wrf_r

526.blender_r

527.cam4_r

538.imagick_r

544.nab_r

549.fotonik3d_r

554.roms_r


Peak Portability Flags

503.bwaves_r

507.cactuBSSN_r

508.namd_r

510.parest_r

511.povray_r

519.lbm_r

521.wrf_r

526.blender_r

527.cam4_r

538.imagick_r

544.nab_r

549.fotonik3d_r

554.roms_r


Base Optimization Flags

C benchmarks

C++ benchmarks

Fortran benchmarks

Benchmarks using both Fortran and C

Benchmarks using both C and C++

Benchmarks using Fortran, C, and C++


Peak Optimization Flags

C benchmarks

519.lbm_r

538.imagick_r

544.nab_r

C++ benchmarks

508.namd_r

510.parest_r

Fortran benchmarks

503.bwaves_r

549.fotonik3d_r

554.roms_r

Benchmarks using both Fortran and C

521.wrf_r

527.cam4_r

Benchmarks using both C and C++

511.povray_r

526.blender_r

Benchmarks using Fortran, C, and C++


Base Other Flags

C benchmarks

C++ benchmarks

Fortran benchmarks

Benchmarks using both Fortran and C

Benchmarks using both C and C++

Benchmarks using Fortran, C, and C++


Peak Other Flags

C benchmarks

C++ benchmarks

Fortran benchmarks

Benchmarks using both Fortran and C

Benchmarks using both C and C++

Benchmarks using Fortran, C, and C++


Implicitly Included Flags

This section contains descriptions of flags that were included implicitly by other flags, but which do not have a permanent home at SPEC.


Commands and Options Used to Submit Benchmark Runs

Using numactl to bind processes and memory to cores

For multi-copy runs or single copy runs on systems with multiple sockets, it is advantageous to bind a process to a particular core. Otherwise, the OS may arbitrarily move your process from one core to another. This can affect performance. To help, SPEC allows the use of a "submit" command where users can specify a utility to use to bind processes. We have found the utility 'numactl' to be the best choice.

numactl runs processes with a specific NUMA scheduling or memory placement policy. The policy is set for a command and inherited by all of its children. The numactl flag "--physcpubind" specifies which core(s) to bind the process. "-l" instructs numactl to keep a process's memory on the local node while "-m" specifies which node(s) to place a process's memory. For full details on using numactl, please refer to your Linux documentation, 'man numactl'

Note that some older versions of numactl incorrectly interpret application arguments as its own. For example, with the command "numactl --physcpubind=0 -l a.out -m a", numactl will interpret a.out's "-m" option as its own "-m" option. To work around this problem, we put the command to be run in a shell script and then run the shell script using numactl. For example: "echo 'a.out -m a' > run.sh ; numactl --physcpubind=0 bash run.sh"


Shell, Environment, and Other Software Settings

numactl --interleave=all runcpu

numactl --interleave=all runcpu executes the SPEC CPU command runcpu so that memory is consumed across NUMA nodes rather than consumed from a single node. This helps prevent local node out-of-memory conditions which can occur when runcpu is executed without interleaving. For full details on using numactl, please refer to your Linux documentation, 'man numactl'

Transparent Huge Pages (THP)

THP is an abstraction layer that automates most aspects of creating, managing, and using huge pages. It is designed to hide much of the complexity in using huge pages from system administrators and developers. Huge pages increase the memory page size from 4 kilobytes to 2 megabytes. This provides significant performance advantages on systems with highly contended resources and large memory workloads. If memory utilization is too high or memory is badly fragmented which prevents huge pages being allocated, the kernel will assign smaller 4k pages instead. Most recent Linux OS releases have THP enabled by default.

THP usage is controlled by the sysfs setting /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled. Possible values:

The SPEC CPU benchmark codes themselves never explicitly request huge pages, as the mechanism to do that is OS-specific and can change over time. Libraries such as amdalloc which are used by the benchmarks may explicitly request huge pages, and use of such libraries can make the "madvise" setting relevant and useful.

When no huge pages are immediately available and one is requested, how the system handles the request for THP creation is controlled by the sysfs setting /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/defrag. Possible values:

An application that "always" requests THP often can benefit from waiting for an allocation until those huge pages can be assembled.
For more information see the Linux transparent hugepage documentation.

ulimit -s <n>

Sets the stack size to n kbytes, or unlimited to allow the stack size to grow without limit.

ulimit -l <n>

Sets the maximum size of memory that may be locked into physical memory.

powersave -f (on SuSE)

Makes the powersave daemon set the CPUs to the highest supported frequency.

/etc/init.d/cpuspeed stop (on Red Hat)

Disables the cpu frequency scaling program in order to set the CPUs to the highest supported frequency.

LD_LIBRARY_PATH

An environment variable that indicates the location in the filesystem of bundled libraries to use when running the benchmark binaries.

LIBOMP_NUM_HIDDEN_HELPER_THREADS

target nowait is supported via hidden helper task, which is a task not bound to any parallel region. A hidden helper team with a number of threads is created when the first hidden helper task is encountered.

The number of threads can be configured via the environment variable LIBOMP_NUM_HIDDEN_HELPER_THREADS. The default is 8. If LIBOMP_NUM_HIDDEN_HELPER_THREADS is 0, the hidden helper task is disabled and support falls back to a regular OpenMP task. The hidden helper task can also be disabled by setting the environment variable LIBOMP_USE_HIDDEN_HELPER_TASK=OFF.

sysctl -w vm.dirty_ratio=8

Limits dirty cache to 8% of memory.

sysctl -w vm.swappiness=1

Limits swap usage to minimum necessary.

sysctl -w vm.zone_reclaim_mode=1

Frees local node memory first to avoid remote memory usage.

kernel/numa_balancing

This OS setting controls automatic NUMA balancing on memory mapping and process placement. NUMA balancing incurs overhead for no benefit on workloads that are already bound to NUMA nodes.

Possible settings:

For more information see the numa_balancing entry in the Linux sysctl documentation.

kernel/randomize_va_space (ASLR)

This setting can be used to select the type of process address space randomization. Defaults differ based on whether the architecture supports ASLR, whether the kernel was built with the CONFIG_COMPAT_BRK option or not, or the kernel boot options used.

Possible settings:

Disabling ASLR can make process execution more deterministic and runtimes more consistent. For more information see the randomize_va_space entry in the Linux sysctl documentation.

vm/drop_caches

The two commands are equivalent: echo 3> /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches and sysctl -w vm.drop_caches=3 Both must be run as root. The commands are used to free up the filesystem page cache, dentries, and inodes.

Possible settings:

MALLOC_CONF

The amdalloc library is a variant of jemalloc library. The amdalloc library has tunable parameters, many of which may be changed at run-time via several mechanisms, one of which is the MALLOC_CONF environment variable. Other methods, as well as the order in which they're referenced, are detailed in the jemalloc documentation's TUNING section.

The options that can be tuned at run-time are everything in the jemalloc documentation's MALLCTL NAMESPACE section that begins with "opt.".

The options that may be encountered in SPEC CPU 2017 results are detailed here:

PGHPF_ZMEM

An environment variable used to initialize the allocated memory. Setting PGHPF_ZMEM to "Yes" has the effect of initializing all allocated memory to zero.

GOMP_CPU_AFFINITY

This environment variable is used to set the thread affinity for threads spawned by OpenMP.

OMP_DYNAMIC

This environment variable is defined as part of the OpenMP standard. Setting it to "false" prevents the OpenMP runtime from dynamically adjusting the number of threads to use for parallel execution.

For more information, see chapter 4 ("Environment Variables") in the OpenMP 4.5 Specification.

OMP_SCHEDULE

This environment variable is defined as part of the OpenMP standard. Setting it to "static" causes loop iterations to be assigned to threads in round-robin fashion in the order of the thread number.

For more information, see chapter 4 ("Environment Variables") in the OpenMP 4.5 Specification.

OMP_STACKSIZE

This environment variable is defined as part of the OpenMP standard and controls the size of the stack for threads created by OpenMP.

For more information, see chapter 4 ("Environment Variables") in the OpenMP 4.5 Specification.

OMP_THREAD_LIMIT

This environment variable is defined as part of the OpenMP standard and limits the maximum number of OpenMP threads that can be created.

For more information, see chapter 4 ("Environment Variables") in the OpenMP 4.5 Specification.


Operating System Tuning Parameters

sched_cfs_bandwidth_slice_us
This OS setting controls the amount of run-time(bandwidth) transferred to a run queue from the task's control group bandwidth pool. Small values allow the global bandwidth to be shared in a fine-grained manner among tasks, larger values reduce transfer overhead. The default value is 5000 (ns).
sched_latency_ns
This OS setting configures targeted preemption latency for CPU bound tasks. The default value is 24000000 (ns).
sched_migration_cost_ns
Amount of time after the last execution that a task is considered to be "cache hot" in migration decisions. A "hot" task is less likely to be migrated to another CPU, so increasing this variable reduces task migrations. The default value is 500000 (ns).
sched_min_granularity_ns
This OS setting controls the minimal preemption granularity for CPU bound tasks. As the number of runnable tasks increases, CFS(Complete Fair Scheduler), the scheduler of the Linux kernel, decreases the timeslices of tasks. If the number of runnable tasks exceeds sched_latency_ns/sched_min_granularity_ns, the timeslice becomes number_of_running_tasks * sched_min_granularity_ns. The default value is 8000000 (ns).
sched_wakeup_granularity_ns
This OS setting controls the wake-up preemption granularity. Increasing this variable reduces wake-up preemption, reducing disturbance of compute bound tasks. Lowering it improves wake-up latency and throughput for latency critical tasks, particularly when a short duty cycle load component must compete with CPU bound components. The default value is 10000000 (ns).
numa_balancing
This OS setting controls automatic NUMA balancing on memory mapping and process placement. NUMA balancing incurs overhead for no benefit on workloads that are already bound to NUMA nodes. Possible settings: For more information see the numa_balancing entry in the Linux sysctl documentation.
kernel.randomize_va_space (ASLR)
This setting can be used to select the type of process address space randomization. Defaults differ based on whether the architecture supports ASLR, whether the kernel was built with the CONFIG_COMPAT_BRK option or not, or the kernel boot options used.
Possible settings: Disabling ASLR can make process execution more deterministic and runtimes more consistent. For more information see the randomize_va_space entry in the Linux sysctl documentation.
Transparent Hugepages (THP)
THP is an abstraction layer that automates most aspects of creating, managing, and using huge pages. It is designed to hide much of the complexity in using huge pages from system administrators and developers. Huge pages increase the memory page size from 4 kilobytes to 2 megabytes. This provides significant performance advantages on systems with highly contended resources and large memory workloads. If memory utilization is too high or memory is badly fragmented which prevents hugepages being allocated, the kernel will assign smaller 4k pages instead. Most recent Linux OS releases have THP enabled by default.
THP usage is controlled by the sysfs setting /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled. Possible values: THP creation is controlled by the sysfs setting /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/defrag. Possible values: An application that "always" requests THP often can benefit from waiting for an allocation until those huge pages can be assembled.
For more information see the Linux transparent hugepage documentation.
tuned-adm
The tuned-adm tool is a commandline interface for switching between different tuning profiles available to the tuned tuning daemon available in supported Linux distros. The default configuration file is located in /etc/tuned.conf and the supported profiles can be found in /etc/tune-profiles. Some profiles that may be available by default include: default, desktop-powersave, server-powersave, laptop-ac-powersave, laptop-battery-powersave, spindown-disk, throughput-performance, latency-performance, enterprise-storage. To set a profile, one can issue the command "tuned-adm profile (profile_name)". Here are details about relevant profiles:
dirty_background_ratio
Set through "echo 40 > /proc/sys/vm/dirty_background_ratio". This setting can help Linux disk caching and performance by setting the percentage of system memory that can be filled with dirty pages.
dirty_ratio
Set through "echo 8 > /proc/sys/vm/dirty_ratio". This setting is the absolute maximum amount of system memory that can be filled with dirty pages before everything must get committed to disk.
ksm/sleep_millisecs
Set through "echo 200 > /sys/kernel/mm/ksm/sleep_millisecs". This setting controls how many milliseconds the ksmd (KSM daemon) should sleep before the next scan.
swappiness
The swappiness value can range from 1 to 100. A value of 100 will cause the kernel to swap out inactive processes frequently in favor of file system performance, resulting in large disk cache sizes. A value of 1 tells the kernel to only swap processes to disk if absolutely necessary. This can be set through a command like "echo 1 > /proc/sys/vm/swappiness"
Zone Reclaim Mode
Zone reclaim allows the reclaiming of pages from a zone if the number of free pages falls below a watermark even if other zones still have enough pages available. Reclaiming a page can be more beneficial than taking the performance penalties that are associated with allocating a page on a remote zone, especially for NUMA machines. To tell the kernel to free local node memory rather than grabbing free memory from remote nodes, use a command like "echo 1 > /proc/sys/vm/zone_reclaim_mode"
Free the file system page cache
The command "echo 3> /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches" is used to free pagecache, dentries and inodes.
cpupower
The OS 'cpupower' utility is used to change CPU power governors settings. Available settings are:

Firmware / BIOS / Microcode Settings

Choose Operating Mode: (Default="Maximum Efficiency")
Select the operating mode based on your preference. Note, power savings and performance are also highly dependent on hardware and software running on system.
Determinism Slider:
Core Performance Boost:
Allows the processor to opportunistically increase a set of CPU cores higher than the CPU’s rated base clock speed, based on the number of active cores, power and thermal headroom in a system.
Global C-state Control:
C-states are idle power saving states. This setting enables and disables C-states on the server across all cores. When disabled, the CPU cores can only be in C0 (active) or C1 state. C1 state can never be disabled. A CPU core will be in the C1 state if the core is halted by the operating system.
cTDP:
Sets the maximum power consumption for CPU. cTDP is only configurable before OS boot.
cTDP Manual:
cTDP is the acronym for Configurable TDP. Some Rome CPU skus support a default TDP and a higher cTDP expressed in Watts.
ModelNormal TDPMinimum TDPMaximum TDP
EPYC 9754360320400
EPYC 9734340320400
EPYC 9654360320400
EPYC 9654P360320400
EPYC 9634290240300
EPYC 9554360320400
EPYC 9554P360320400
EPYC 9534280240300
EPYC 9474F360320400
EPYC 9454290240300
EPYC 9454P290240300
EPYC 9374F320320400
EPYC 9354280240300
EPYC 9354P280240300
EPYC 9334210200240
EPYC 9274F320320400
EPYC 9254200200240
EPYC 9224200200240
EPYC 9174F320320400
EPYC 9124200200240
Memory Speed:
Select the desired memory speed. Faster speeds offer better performance but consume more power.
4-Link xGMI Max Speed:
Sets the xGMI speed. N is the maximum speed and is auto-calculated from the system board capabilities. For system boards that do not support 4 discrete xGMI speed choices. some menu choices besides 'Minimum' will result in the xGMI speed getting set to the minimum value.
NUMA Nodes per Socket:
Specifies the number of desired NUMA nodes per socket. Default is NPS1.
Package Power Limit:
This Parameter sets the CPU package power limit. The maximum value allowed for PPL is the cTDP limit.
SMT Mode:
Can be used to disable symmetric multithreading. To re-enable SMT, a POWER CYCLE is needed after selecting Enable.
ACPI SRAT L3 Cache as NUMA Domain:
When enabled, the last level cache in each CCX in the system will be declared as a separate NUMA domain. It can improve performance for highly NUMA optimized workloads if workloads or components of workloads can be pinned to cores in a CCX and if they can benefit from sharing an L3 cache.
Efficiency Mode:
This setting enables an energy efficient mode of operation internal to AMD EPYC Gen2 processors at the expense of performance. The settings should be enabled when energy efficient operation is desired from the processor.
LCC as NUMA Node:
Exposes the processor's last level caches as NUMA nodes. When enabled, can improve performance for highly NUMA optimized workloads if workloads or components of workloads can be pinned into the caches.
DF P-states:
DF P-states is the processor uncore P-states. Setting DF P-states to P0, P1, P2, or P3 forces the uncore to operate in a specific P-state frequency.
L1 Stream HW Prefetcher:
Fetches the next cache line int to the L1 cache when cached lines are reused within a certain time period or accessed sequentially.
L2 Stream HW Prefetcher:
Fetches the next cache line int to the L2 cache when cached lines are reused within a certain time period or accessed sequentially.
P-state 1:
The processor P-state is the capability of running the processor at different voltage and/or frequency levels. Generally, P0 is the highest state resulting in maximum performance, while P1 is the second level state and will save power but at some penalty to CPU performance.
xGMI Maximum Link Width:
Sets the xGMI maximum allowable link width. The actual xGMI link width can vary between the minimum and maximum width selected.
DRAM Scrub Time:
Memory reliability parameter that sets the period of time between successive DRAM scrub events. Performance may be reduced with more frequent DRAM scrub events. Possible values:
Memory interleave:
This setting allows interleaved memory accesses across multiple memory channels in each socket, providing higher memory bandwidth.

Flag description origin markings:

[user] Indicates that the flag description came from the user flags file.
[suite] Indicates that the flag description came from the suite-wide flags file.
[benchmark] Indicates that the flag description came from a per-benchmark flags file.

The flags files that were used to format this result can be browsed at
http://www.spec.org/cpu2017/flags/aocc400-flags.html,
http://www.spec.org/cpu2017/flags/Lenovo-Platform-SPECcpu2017-Flags-V1.2-Bergamo-S.html.

You can also download the XML flags sources by saving the following links:
http://www.spec.org/cpu2017/flags/aocc400-flags.xml,
http://www.spec.org/cpu2017/flags/Lenovo-Platform-SPECcpu2017-Flags-V1.2-Bergamo-S.xml.


For questions about the meanings of these flags, please contact the tester.
For other inquiries, please contact info@spec.org
Copyright 2017-2023 Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation
Tested with SPEC CPU2017 v1.1.9.
Report generated on 2023-06-13 15:17:04 by SPEC CPU2017 flags formatter v5178.