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Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation

 
 

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About SPEC OMP2001 Software

Q1: What is SPEC OMP2001?
A1: SPEC OMP2001 is a software benchmark product produced by the Standard Performance Evaluation Corp.'s High-Performance Group (SPEC/HPG). SPEC is a non-profit organization that includes computer vendors, systems integrators, universities, research organizations, publishers and consultants from around the world. The benchmark is designed to provide performance measurements that can be used to compare compute-intensive parallel workloads on different parallel computing systems.

SPEC OMP2001 contains two benchmark suites. The first benchmark, SPEC OMPM2001, measures performance of shared-memory systems with between four and 32 processors. The second, SPEC OMPL2001, is designed to measure performance of systems with as many as 512 processors.

Q2: What is a benchmark?
A2: A benchmark is a standard of measurement or evaluation. SPEC was formed to establish and maintain computer benchmarks for measuring and comparing component- and system-level computer performance.

Q3: What components does SPEC OMP2001 measure?
A3: Since the benchmarks are designed to reflect applications requiring compute-intensive parallel processing, they measure performance of the computer's processors, memory architecture, operating system, and compiler. It is important to remember the contribution of the latter three components.

Q4: What component performance is not measured by SPEC OMP2001?
A4: The OMP2001 benchmarks do not stress I/O (disk drives), networking or graphics. It might be possible to configure a system in such a way that one or more of these components impact the performance of OMP2001, but that is not the intent of the suites.

Q5: What is included in the SPEC OMP2001 packages?
A5: SPEC provides the following:
  • SPEC OMP2001 tools for compiling, running and validating the benchmarks for a variety of operating systems
  • source code for the tools, so that they can be built for systems not covered by the pre-compiled tools
  • source code for the benchmarks
  • tools for generating performance reports
  • run and reporting rules defining how the benchmarks should be used to produce standard results
  • SPEC OMP2001 documentation

SPEC OMP2001 includes tools for most UNIX operating systems. Additional products for Windows NT and other operating systems will be released later if SPEC detects enough demand. SPEC OMPM2001 and SPEC OMPL2001 will be shipped on separate CD-ROM disks.

Q6: What does the SPEC OMP2001 user have to provide?
A6: The user must have a computer system with a CD-ROM drive that has a UNIX based O/S with both C and FORTRAN90 compilers supporting OpenMP. Depending on the system under test, approximately 3GB will be needed on a hard drive to install, build and run SPEC OMPM2001; twice as much is needed for SPEC OMPL2001.

The system should have at least 2GB of RAM for SPEC OMPM2001 and 8GB for SPEC OMPL2001 to ensure that benchmarks remain in memory and paging does not occur. Systems with large processor accounts will require greater amounts of memory.

Q7: What are the basic steps in running the benchmarks?
A7: Installation and use are covered in detail in the SPEC OMP2001 User Documentation. The basic steps are as follows:
  1. Install SPEC OMPM2001 or SPEC OMPL2001 from media.
  2. Run the installation scripts specifying your operating system.
  3. Compile the tools if executables are not provided in SPEC OMP2001.
  4. Determine which metric you want to run.
  5. Create a configuration file for that metric. In this file, you specify compiler flags and other system-dependent information.
  6. Run the SPEC tools to build (compile), run and validate the benchmarks.
  7. If the above steps are successful, generate a report based on the run times and metric equations.

Q8: What source code is provided? What exactly makes up these suites?
A8: SPEC OMPM2001 and SPEC OMPL2001 are based on compute-intensive, parallel-processing applications that are provided as source code containing OpenMP directives. A medium and large version of the same 9 applications (seven FORTRAN90 and two C) are used within the two benchmark suites along with an additional FORTRAN90 and an additional C code for the medium version:
310.wupwise_m and 311.wupwise_l quantum chromodynamics
312.swim_m and 313.swim_l shallow water modeling
314.mgrid_m and 315.mgrid_l multi-grid solver in 3D potential field
316.applu_m and 317.applu_l parabolic/elliptic partial differential equations
318.galgel_m fluid dynamics analysis of oscillatory instability
330.art_m and 331.art_l neural network simulation of adaptive resonance theory
320.equake_m and 321.equake_l finite element simulation of earthquake modeling
332.ammp_m computational chemistry
328.fma3d_m and 329.fma3d_l finite-element crash simulation
324.apsi_m and 325.apsi_l solves problems regarding temperature, wind, distribution of pollutants
326.gafort_m and 327.gafort_l genetic algorithm code

The numbers in the benchmarks' names serve as identifiers to distinguish programs from one another and from similar codes in SPEC CPU2000. More detailed descriptions of the benchmarks can be found in the individual benchmark directories in the SPEC benchmark tree.

Q9: What metrics can be measured?
A9: The benchmark suites can be used to measure and calculate the following metrics:
SPEC OMPM2001
SPECompMpeak2001: The geometric mean of 11 normalized ratios (one for each benchmark) when compiled with "aggressive" optimization and possible code modification.
SPECompMbase2001: The geometric mean of 11 normalized ratios (one for each benchmark) when compiled with "conservative" optimization (all benchmarks compiled with the same flags and no modifications to source code).
SPECompM2001: greater of base & peak metric.
SPEC OMPL2001
SPECompLpeak2001: The geometric mean of 11 normalized ratios (one for each benchmark) when compiled with "aggressive" optimization, and possible code modification.
SPECompLbase2001: The geometric mean of 12 normalized ratios (one for each benchmark) when compiled with "conservative" optimization (all benchmarks compiled with the same lags and no modifications to source code).
SPECompL2001: greater of base & peak metric.
The ratio for each of the benchmarks is calculated using a SPEC-determined reference time and the actual run time of the benchmark. A higher score means "better performance" on the given workload.

Q10: What is the difference between a "conservative" (base) metric and an "aggressive" (non-base) metric?
A10: In order to provide comparisons across different computer hardware, SPEC provides benchmarks as source code. This means they must be compiled before they can be run. There was agreement within SPEC that the benchmarks should be compiled the way users compile programs. But how do users compile programs? On one side, people might just compile with the general high-performance options suggested by the compiler vendor. On the other side, people might experiment with many different compilers and compiler flags to achieve the best performance. So, while SPEC cannot match exactly how everyone uses compilers, it can provide metrics that represent the general characteristics of these two groups.

The base metrics (e.g., SPECompMbase2001) are required for all reported results and have set guidelines for compilation (e.g., the same flags must be used in the same order for all benchmarks of the same language, no assertion flags). The assumed model uses performance compiler flags that a compiler vendor would suggest for a given program knowing only its own language.

The non-base metrics (e.g., SPECompMpeak2001) are optional and have less-strict requirements (e.g., different compiler options and code modifications related to parallel performance can be used on each benchmark).

A full description of the distinctions can be found in the SPEC OMP2001 run and reporting rules.

Q11: How should I use SPEC OMP2001?
A11: Typically, the best measurement of a system is the performance of your own application with your own workload. Unfortunately, time, money and other constraints make it very difficult to get a wide base of reliable, repeatable and comparable measurements on different systems.

Benchmarks act as a reference point for comparison. It's the same reason that gas mileage ratings exist, although probably no driver gets exactly the same mileage as listed in the ratings. If you understand what benchmarks measure, they're useful.

It's important to know that SPEC OMPM2001 and -large focus on parallel-processing not system performance. They concentrate only on some of the factors that contribute to applications performance. A graphics or network performance bottleneck within an application, for example, will not be reflected in these benchmarks.

Understanding your own needs helps determine the relevance of the benchmarks.

Q12: Why was SPEC OMP2001 developed?
A12: As more multi-processor systems became available, the SPEC High Performance Group saw a need for a benchmark suite to measure parallel performance, and more specifically, the performance of shared-memory parallel systems. The OpenMP directives were used because they have become the de facto standard for implementing this type of parallelism.

Q13: What criteria were used to select the benchmarks?
A13: In the process of selecting applications to use as benchmarks, SPEC considered the following criteria:
  • portability to all SPEC hardware architectures (64-bit including Alpha, Intel Architecture, MIPS, SPARC, etc.)
  • portability to various operating systems
  • benchmarks should produce scalable parallel performance over several architectures.
  • benchmarks should not include measurable I/O
  • benchmarks should not include networking or graphics
  • benchmarks should run in 2GB of RAM for SPEC OMPM2001 and 8GB of RAM for SPEC OMPL2001 without swapping for a single CPU.
  • no more than five percent of benchmarking time should be spent processing code not provided by SPEC.

Q14: Weren't most of the SPEC OMP2001 benchmarks in SPEC CPU2000? How are they different?
A14: Although some of the benchmarks from SPEC CPU2000 are included in OMP2001, they all have been given larger workloads. Also, all of the codes have been modified for parallelism, including the insertion of OpenMP directives. The revised benchmarks have been assigned different identifying numbers to distinguish them from versions in previous suites and to indicate that they are not comparable with their predecessors.

Q15: Why does SPEC use a reference machine for determining performance metrics? What machine is used for SPEC OMP2001 benchmark suites?
A15: SPEC uses a reference machine to normalize the performance metrics used in the OMP2001 suites. Each benchmark is run and measured on this machine to establish a reference time for that benchmark. These times are then used in the SPEC calculations.

SPEC OMP2001 uses an SGI 2100 with four 350MHz processors as the reference machine. It takes approximately one-and-a-half days to do a SPEC-conforming run of SPEC OMPM2001 using all four processors on this machine. The performance relation between two systems measured with the OMP2001 benchmarks would remain the same even if a different reference machine was used. This is a consequence of the mathematics involved in calculating the individual and overall (geometric mean) metrics. The SGI reference machine performs at about 1000 SPECompMbase2001.

Q16: How long does it take to run the SPEC OMP2001 benchmark suites?
A16: It depends on the suite and the machine that is running the benchmarks. In particular it will depend on the number of processors in the target machine.

Q17: What if the tools cannot be run or built on a system? Can they be run manually?
A17: To generate SPEC-compliant results, the tools used must be approved by SPEC. If several attempts at using the SPEC tools are not successful for the operating system for which you purchased OMP2001, you should contact SPEC for technical support. SPEC will work with you to correct the problem and/or investigate SPEC-compliant alternatives.

Q18: Where are SPEC OMP2001 results available?
A18: Results for all measurements submitted to SPEC are available at http://www.spec.org/hpg/omp/

Q19: Can SPEC OMP2001 results be published outside of the SPEC web site?
A19: Yes, SPEC OMP2001 results can be freely published if all the run and reporting rules have been followed and the results are reviewed by SPEC/HPG for a nominal fee. Yes, SPEC OMP2001 results can be freely published if all the Run and Reporting Rules have been followed and reviewed by SPEC/HPG for a nominal fee. The SPEC OMP2001 license agreement binds every purchaser of the suite to the run and reporting rules if results are quoted in public. A full disclosure of the details of a performance measurement must be provided to anyone who asks. See the SPEC OMP2001 Run and Reporting Rules for details.

SPEC strongly encourages that results be submitted for the web site, since it ensures a peer review process and uniform presentation of all results. The Run and Reporting Rules contain an exemption clause for research and academic use of SPEC OMP2001. Results obtained in this context need not comply with all the requirements for other measurements. It is required, however, that research and academic results be clearly distinguished from results submitted officially to SPEC.

Q20: How do I contact SPEC?
A20: Send e-mail to info@spec.org

Press contacts:
Bob Cramblitt or Erin Hatfield
Cramblitt & Company
919-481-4599; cramco@cramco.com